Guidelines for Authors

Translated from:
Instructions aux auteur·e·s

Conditions for Consideration for Publication

Manuscripts submitted to the journal should be sent to:

They must include the title of the article, name of the author(s), abstract, keywords, text of the article and bibliographical references. Where applicable, the materials used for research should be sent as separate digital files.

A submitted manuscript must be an unpublished original work that is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

Before submitting a proposal, it is requested that authors review the journal’s format available at:, in order to verify whether the project of the article fits into the editorial project of the journal.

Texts Accepted for Consideration for Publication

The manuscripts considered by the editorial personnel are proposals for scientific articles in all areas of human and social sciences, literature and archaeology, relating to research on Africa.

Authors can also propose a review of an academic work, a journal issue or one of its topics, a film or documentary, etc., that fall within the scope of the Sources.

As for the In the Digital Archive Workshop section of the journal, the editorial personnel are also considering archival projects or digital data proposals, relating to research in African Studies.

The editorial personnel accept the submission of data papers presenting data sets.

The editorial personnel accept interview proposals that fall within the editorial line of Sources.

Open Access and Open Access License

Authors must understand that the texts published in the journal are always open access. The public license CC-BY-SA 4.0 is applied to all texts (


Manuscripts can be submitted in French, English or Portuguese. The editorial personnel can also consider manuscripts written in a language used in the geographical area that the study concerns. In this case, the text must be accompanied by a translation into one of the three languages mentioned above.

Declaration of Professional Affiliations

The author’s affiliation to a research institution and/or their academic title are not required for the consideration for publication but should be mentioned if applicable.

The job title, organization or company where the authors have a member or employee status must also be mentioned. If the author is a student, they must mention their educational institution.

Pre-publication in an Open Archive / by Self-Publishing / via a Third-Party Publisher

Authors have the right to submit the proposed version to an open institutional archive or to a self-publishing space. This could be done prior to submission to the journal, at any time of the evaluation process or after the publication. The editorial personnel will not be able to refuse a text on the grounds of prior self-archiving, but the journal must nevertheless be informed of this.

Authors must explicitly indicate whether the text has been published by a third-party publisher, in an identical or similar version, in the same or different language, as an academic article, press article, blog post (in a blog that is not personal), part of a book or any other publication. The editors reserve the right to refuse the proposal on the grounds of this information.

If re-publication is justified (on the grounds of unavailability of the original publication or its translation) and if it is legally possible, the editorial personnel will indicate any previous existence of the text.

Conflict of Interest

The authors are requested to disclose any conflict of interest relating to the submitted publication.

Presentation of the Manuscript

Manuscripts are accepted in DOC, DOCX, RTF, or ODT format.

Manuscript Length

Texts must include in average 45,000 characters (including the bibliography, abstract and keywords), but shorter or longer texts may also be accepted. Potential requests about reducing the article length will be justified on the basis of scientific interest or the editorial work management.

Introduction Section

Title, Author, Job Title

The title and subtitle of the article (if any) must be followed by the full name of the author(s).

Their job title, their institutional affiliation (if any), their university degree (if any), as well as their email address(es) should be indicated after their name.

Abstracts and Keywords

The abstract must have a maximum length of 3,000 signs. It must be coherent and provide a concise summary of the context, as well as the methodological approach and the main conclusions of the article.

This summary must be written in the language of the article and/or in English.

5 to 8 keywords in the language of the article must be proposed.

Text Composition

The body of the text should be presented in Normal or Standard style. The font size must be 10-13 points. The document must contain the margins of at least 2 cm.

Headings must be presented in the program’s native heading styles (Title 1/Heading 1, Title 2 / Heading 2, etc).

All the characters in the file must correspond to the Unicode standard.

Footnotes must be inserted automatically, and references must be provided.

Titles, headings, name(s) of the author(s) of the article, proper names cited in the article must start with a capital letter but should not be written entirely in capital letters.

Images in the text must be captioned and cited. Authors must inform the journal of the copyright holder and of article reproduction authorizations if the image is not free to reuse. They must be provided as separate files with a minimum of 300 DPI and a minimum width of 1,000 pixels.

Tables should be created in the text and not inserted as images. They should have a title and a source. For complex tables, authors must attach the ordered data in a separate file in CSV, XLS, XLSX, or ODS format.

The databases must be attached in a standard open format, for instance, CSV or XML.

Material presentation

The key purpose of Sources is to make materials accessible for researchers and lay the basis for elaboration of theory. They may be presented in the form of writings, images, maps, videos or audio recordings. The quality of the proposed materials and the rigor with which they were selected are therefore crucial for the consideration of the manuscript.

Material Identification

Authors are required to:

  • accompany the proposals with digital reproduction of these materials, together with their titles, citations and captions, if any;

  • mention the exact location of the primary sources if they were consulted within institutions (archives, libraries, documentation centers, governmental or non-governmental organizations...). These materials can be presented in physical or digital form together with their reference;

  • provide accurate quotes if the materials are available in digital format in open access repositories that can be cited using a common citation format.

Material Transfer

Materials proposed for publication should be submitted as separate digital files. The names of the different files in the manuscript’s document or appendix and their identification (number, title, caption) should match clearly.

The files may be sent by e-mail, or saved in a permanent online folder shared with the journal’s contact address ( if the volume of data is too big to be sent in an e-mail.

The editorial team and authors may also consider other modes of transfer (e.g., on various digital storage media, or transmission of paper originals).

Material Quality and Transcription

Wherever possible, the quality of the digital re-production (image resolution, sound) must be of high quality and suitable for academic publication.

The images should be at least 300 DPI and of sufficient size (of least 500 px in width).

Text images must be legible, either scanned or presented as vertical photographs with sufficient lightning.

Texts reproduced in images and words obtained from audio or audiovisual sources must be accompanied by a full or partial transcript.

Permissions to Reproduce an Article

The authors understand that the purpose of the journal is to provide free and immediate consultation and, wherever possible, the reuse of the primary data presented in the journal.

In all cases, authors should have conducted research on the legal requirements for reproducing the materials in journals.

The editors will judge the legal, ethical and technical feasibility of reproducing the materials. The impossibility of open and immediate presentation of the sources may lead to the rejection of the article.

The editorial personnel may assist authors in the process of obtaining permission for reproducing and structuring the data repository. Nevertheless, they will not fund any reproduction right or digital hosting fees.

Spelling and typographical standards


Authors must comply with the usual ortho-typographic standards.

However, compliance with the spelling corrections of 1990 is accepted (see:

The application of inclusive writing standards is also accepted, especially according to the Manual of Inclusive Writing (Manuel d’écriture inclusive) (see:

The applied standards should be consistent throughout the article. The editorial personnel may provide guidance to the author on the inclusive writing in their article upon request.


The ortho-typographical rules recommended by the Oxford English Dictionary or the Chicago Manuel of Style are accepted.

The application of inclusive writing standards is accepted.


The editorial personnel accept texts drafted according to the rules of the Spelling Agreement of the Portuguese language of 1990 (Acordo Ortográfico da Língua Portuguesa de 1990) or according to the European spelling prior to (Spelling Agreement of 1945).

Inclusive writing is accepted in Portuguese.

Bibliographical References

The bibliography must be presented at the end of the article. The references must be arranged in alphabetical order according to authors’ names and then by date of publication in descending order. Publications by the same author and of the same year should be distinguished by an index attached to the year, as follows: 2008a, 2008b, 2008c.

It is recommended to export the bibliographic citations into a file in BibTeX, RIS, Zotero RDF formats.

Citation Standards

The journal adopts the citation standards of the Chicago Manual of Style, or Author-Date1 style. An excerpt for the English language is available on this page:

These Chicago citation standards are similar to French and Lusophone manuscripts in terms of:

  • quotation marks. In French, use angular quotation marks (« ») when citing a primary source, and English quotation marks (“ ”) for a secondary source (quotation within a quotation);

  • linking words, identifying terms and other notes that are not part of the titles. For instance, in a French-language article, use dir. rather than eds, traduit par... rather than translated by, et rather than and, etc.;

  • dates (juillet 2010 rather than July 2010” or “5 mai 2010 rather than May 5, 2010”);

  • the names of the publishing centres must be written in the language of the article (e.g. “Londres” rather than “London” in a French-language article).

Bibliographies generated with Zotero are accepted if they are presented in a Chicago Manual of Style Author-Date format adapted to the language of the article. A French version of the Zotero module for the Chicago style can be found here:

Application of Linguistic Rules

The main language of the article defines the linguistic rule that applies to all the references. Thus, the reference of this French-language article included in an English-language article must be presented as follows:

Piron, Florence, Antonin Benoît Diouf, and Zakari Lire. 2017. “Le libre accès vu d’Afrique francophone subsaharienne.” Revue française des sciences de l’information et de la communication no. 11 (August).

By the same token, a reference from an English-language article included in a French-language article must be presented as follows:

Irikefe, Vivienne, Gayathri Vaidyanathan, et Richard Monastersky. 2011 « Science in Africa: The View from the Front Line. » Nature News 474 (7353): 55659.

1 The principle of an Author-Date Style is that references are always presented in the text in brackets, as follows:For one author: (Author Year:

This Author-Date reference may appear as a footnote to complete the information. The complete bibliographical references are only presented as

1 The principle of an Author-Date Style is that references are always presented in the text in brackets, as follows:
For one author: (Author Year: reference pages);
For two authors: (Author1 and Author2 Year: reference pages);
For two different references in the same bracket: (Author1 Year1: pages; Author2a and Author2b Year2: pages).

This Author-Date reference may appear as a footnote to complete the information. The complete bibliographical references are only presented as bibliographical references at the end of the article. These references always begin with the name(s) of the author(s), or the title of the article if there is no identified author, followed by the reference year, or the indication n.d. if the date is not known.